Are first impressions lasting? Some consequences of schooling delay for immigrants’ descendants in Italy
AbstractThe presence of foreign students in the Italian system has increased rapidly in the last few years. Today, they account for 7 per cent of the total student population. The enrollment of foreign students is characterized by a widespread schooling delay that increases for higher educational levels. Here, we would like to investigate if this delay for foreign students is influencing the perception of their school performance and the concentration in less demanding educational paths. Data from a national survey (ITAGEN2) involving more than 20,000 lower secondary school students, half of whom foreigners, are used to explore the factors affecting the perception of one’s performance and the level of future educational aspirations, evaluating the role of the migratory generation and the educational pathway. In particular, having more than one year’s delay leads to a negative perception of one’s abilities and possibly of schooling’s usefulness itself, and to the choice of low-profile educational pathways.
R. APARICIO, (2007), The Integration of the Second and 1.5 Generations of Moroccan, Dominican and Peruvian Origin in Madrid and Barcelona, “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies”, 33, 7, pp. 1169-1193.
N. BARBAN, G. DALLA ZUANNA, P. FARINA, S. STROZZA, (2008), I figli degli stranieri in Italia fra assimilazione e disuguaglianza, Working Paper Series, N. 16, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Padua, http://www.stat.unipd.it/ricerca/wp.
E. BESOZZI, (2002), L’esperienza scolastica: mobilità, riuscita e significati dell’istruzione, in G. GIOVANNINI, L. QUEIROLO PALMAS (eds.), Una scuola in comune. Esperienze scolastiche in contesti multietnici italiani. Torino: Fondazione G. Agnelli, pp. 55-91.
P. BAUER, R. RIPHAHN, (2007), Heterogeneity in the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment: evidence from Switzerland on natives and second-generation immigrants, “Journal of Population Economics”, 20, pp. 121-148.
G. BORJAS, (1992), Ethnic capital and intergenerational mobility, “Quarterly Journal”, 107, 1, pp. 123-150.
D. CHECCHI, L. FLABBY, (2007), Intergenerational mobility and schooling decisions in Germany and Italy: the impact of secondary school track’. IZA Discussion Papers No. 2876.
O. CASACCHIA, L. NATALE, A. PATERNO, L. TERZERA (eds.), (2008), Studiare insieme, crescere insieme? Un’indagine sulle seconde generazioni in dieci regioni italiane, ISMU Foundation, Franco Angeli, Milano.
CNEL, CENSIS (eds.), (2008), Vissuti ed esiti della scolarizzazione dei minori di origine immigrata in Italia, Fondazione Censis, Roma.
M. CRUL, H. VERMEULEN, (2003), The second generation in Europe, “International migration review”, 37, 4, pp. 965-86.
G. DALLA ZUANNA, P. FARINA, S. STROZZA, (2009), Nuovi italiani. I giovani immigrati cambieranno il nostro paese?, il Mulino, Bologna.
EURYDICE, (2009), Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe, http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/101EN.pdf.
G. FAVARO, (2007), L’immigrazione cambia la scuola, “Mondi Migranti”, 1, pp. 121-135. C. FELICIANO, (2006), Beyond the Family: The Influence of Premigration Group Status on the Educational Expectations of Immigrants’ Children, “Sociology of Education”, 79, pp. 281-303.
C. FELICIANO, R. RUMBAUT, (2005), Gendered Paths: Educational and Occupational Expectations and Outcomes among Adult Children of Immigrants, “Ethnic and Racial Studies”, 28, pp. 1087-1118.
P. FERNÁNDEZ-KELLY, L. KONCZAL, (2005), ‘Murdering the Alphabet’: Identity and Entrepreneurship among Second Generation Cubans, West Indians, and Central Americans, “Ethnic and Racial Studies”, 28, pp. 1153-1181.
R. FERRARA, E. DE FILIPPO, E. MUSSINO, (2010), Dalla parte dei figli: il difficile inserimento scolastico, in N. AMMATURO, E. DE FILIPPO S. STROZZA (eds.), La vita degli immigrati a Napoli e nei paesi vesuviani. Un’indagine empirica sull’integrazione, Franco Angeli, Milano, pp. 241-256.
J.H. GOLDTHORPE, C. LLEWELLYN, C. PAYNE, (1987), Social Mobility and Class Structure in Modern Britain, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
J.E. GLICK, M.J. WHITE, (2003), The academic trajectories of immigrant youths: analysis within and across cohorts, “Demography”, 40, 4, pp.759-783.
D.W. HOSMER, S. LEMERSHOW, (1999), Applied Logistic Regression, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
F. HECKMANN, (2008), Education and migration, NESSE network of experts, Report submitted to the European Commission, http://www.nesse.fr/nesse/nesse_top/activites/education-and-migration.
ISTAT, (2010), Bilancio demografico, “Statistiche in breve”, Roma.
G. KAO, M. TIENDA, (1998), Educational Aspirations of Minority Youth, “American Journal of Education”, 106, pp. 349-384.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, (2009), Gli alunni stranieri nel sistema scolastico italiano a.s. 2008/09, Roma.
E. MUSSINO, S. STROZZA, (2011), Children of immigrants in lower secondary education in Italy: reasons of delayed schooling progress, “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies” (accepted to be published).
A. PATERNO, L. TERZERA, (2008), Foto di classe in giro per l’Italia, in O. CASACCHIA, L. NATALE, A. PATERNO, L. TERZERA (eds.), Studiare insieme, crescere insieme? Un’indagine sulle seconde generazioni in dieci regioni italiane, ISMU Foundation, Franco Angeli, Milano, pp. 199-216.
K. PHALET, M. SWYNGEDOUW, (2003), Measuring immigrant integration. The case of Belgium, “Studi Emigrazione”, XL, 152, pp. 773-803.
A. PORTES, R.G. RUMBAUT, (2001), Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation, University of California Press and Russell Sage Foundation, Berkeley, CA.
R.G. RUMBAUT, (1997), Assimilation and Its Discontents: between Rhetoric and Reality, “International Migration Review”, 31, 4, pp. 923-960.
R.G. RUMBAUT, (2004), Ages, life stages, and generational cohorts: Decomposing the immigrant first and second generations in the United States, “International Migration Review”, 38, 3, pp. 1160-1205.
Y. SHAVIT, H.P. BLOSSFELD (eds.), (1993), Persistent Inequalities: a Comparative Study of Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countrie’s, Westview Press, Boulder Colorado.
B. STRAITS, (1987), Residence, migration, and school progress, “Sociology of Education”, 60, pp. 34-43.
P. SIMON, (2003), Challenging the ‘French model of integration’: discrimination and the labour market case in France, “Studi Emigrazione”, XL, 152, pp. 717-746.
S. STROZZA, (2008), Partecipazione e ritardo scolastico dei ragazzi stranieri e d’origine straniera, “Studi Emigrazione”, XLV, 171, pp. 699-722.
S. STROZZA, (2009), Le seconde generazioni: il punto della situazione in Italia, in O. CASACCHIA, L. NATALE, A. GUARNERI (eds.), Tra i banchi di scuola. Alunni stranieri e italiani a Roma e nel Lazio, Franco Angeli, Milano, pp. 19-42.
C. TIMMERMAN, E. VANDERWAEREN, M. CRUL, (2003), The Second Generation in Belgium, “International Migration Review”, 37, 4, pp. 1065-1090.